Portable appliance testing (PAT) is an important sector in health and safety regulations which contain legal and technical requirements. It has been recorded by the Health & Safety Executive that 25% of all reported electrical accidents are a result of a faulty portable appliance. The Electricity at Work Regulations applies legal responsibility on employers and employees in order to act accordingly with regulations and take reasonable steps to ensure that accidents do not result from the use of a portable appliance, which is why it is important to complete portable appliance testing (PAT). It is imperative that PAT portable appliance testing is completed in order to maintain the health and safety at work. PAT portable appliance testing depends on the risk of the appliance becoming faulty.
The National Association of Professional Inspectors and Testers (NAPIT) defines a portable appliance as “any electrical item which is intended to be moved whilst connected to an electrical supply”. The IEE Code of Practice highlights regulations on what type of PAT testing a certain appliance requires because the type of PAT portable appliance testing carried out varies depending on the size and usage of an appliance. An appliance which weighs less than 18kg requires PAT portable appliance testing to ensure that an appliance is able to move from one place to another whilst in use, this includes:
• Hand – Held portable appliance testing - these are appointed to be held during normal use, e.g. a hair dryer.
• I.T appliance testing – e.g. computers and mains powered photocopiers.
How is PAT portable appliance testing completed? PAT portable appliance testing is completed by a qualified PAT tester or a trained PAT portable appliance tester and there are several procedures involved when PAT portable appliance testing.
One method of PAT portable appliance testing is through visual inspections where the PAT tester visually scrutinizes an appliance, in particular the plug and cables will endure testing for any clear signs of hazard. This is an affective method of PAT portable appliance testing because according to the HSE this approach to PAT portable appliance testing can find more than 90% of faults, thus, it is a vital mechanism for the maintenance of a portable appliance.
Additionally PAT portable appliance testing can be completed through user checks. This procedure is where users are advised on how to avoid any potential danger, for example, a frayed cable or cracked plug. If this is the case then PAT testers advise that the plug is not to be tampered with.
Moreover, appliance testing can be completed through combined inspections which are completed at periodical intervals. During these intervals a formal visual inspection is completed followed by appliance testing. When appliance testing it is essential that the interior of the plug is checked (unless it is molded or sealed), in this case of appliance testing bad internal wiring or an unsuitable fuse would classify the item as hazardous.
In the formal inspection of PAT portable appliance testing there are certain signs to be aware of:
• Disturbance to the power cable sheath
• Wreckage of the mains plug
• Damage to external casing of the equipment, or loose parts and/or screws
The formal PAT portable appliance testing procedure should also contain removal of the plug cover and an analysis of:
• The sufficient value fuse being used
• The cord grip has a tight hold of the outer part of the cable
• The Live, Neutral and Earth wires are attached to the correct terminals
• No visible bare wires
• Tight and secure screwing of the terminal screws
• Signs of internal drainage